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Canoe Polo Rules

  1. PLAYING AREA

    The playing area shall be rectangular, and have a length of thirty-five (35) metres and a width of twenty-three (23) metres. The Immediate-Surround of the playing area shall be an unobstructed area of water, with where possible a minimum width of one metre outside all boundaries.

    The water throughout the playing area must be still water at least ninety (90) centimetres deep.

    There must be a clear height of at least three (3) metres without obstacles, and a minimum ceiling height of five (5) metres, above the playing area.

    There shall be a walkway on each side of the playing area kept clear for the referees.

  2. PLAYING AREA BOUNDARIES AND MARKERS

    The longer boundaries are to be referred to as the sidelines, the shorter boundaries as the goal lines.

    The sidelines and goal lines are to be indicated by a floating lane rope. The section of the goal line four (4) metres either side of the centre of the goal frame should be free from floats so as not to interfere with the positioning of the goalkeeper.

    Markers indicating substitutes area are to be placed on the goal lines four (4) metres either side of the centre of the goal frame, and be clearly visible to both referees and players.

    Markers indicating the goal lines, half way line and points six (6) metres and four-and-half (4,5) metres from each goal line are to be placed along the sidelines, and be clearly visible to both referees and players.

  3. GOALS

    Goals will be located over the centre of each goal line with their lower inside edge two (2) metres above the surface of the water. The goals are to be held in such a way that they are prevented from swinging. The goal supports and nets should not interfere with any player defending or manoeuvring around the goal area, or with the flight of the ball in the area of play.

    The goals will consist of open frames one (1) metre high by one and a half (1.5) metres wide (measured internally) hung vertically. The maximum width of a material used to construct the goal frame will be five (5) centimetres. The goals are to have nets, which allow the ball to pass freely through the goal frame but indicate clearly that a goal has been scored. The frame must be red and white striped each stripe being of 20 centimetres length.

  4. THE BALL

    The ball shall be round and shall have an air chamber with a self-closing valve. It shall be waterproof, without external strapping or any covering of grease or similar substance.

    The weight of the ball shall be not less than four hundred (400) grams and not more than four hundred and fifty (450) grams.

    For games played by men, under-21 men and master men, the circumference of the ball shall not be less than sixty-eight (68) centimetres and not more than seventy-one (71) centimetres, and its pressure shall be 90-97 kPa (kilo Pascals) (13-14 pounds per square inch atmospheric).

    For games played by women, under-21 women and master women, the circumference of the ball shall not be less than sixty-five (65) centimetres and not more than sixty-seven (67) centimetres, and its pressure shall be 83-90 kPa (kilo Pascals) (12-13 pounds per square inch atmospheric).

  5. GAME OFFICIALS

    The game officials shall consist of two (2) referees, two (2) goal line judges, one (1) scrutineer, two (2) timekeepers and one (1) scorekeeper.

    Depending on the degree of importance games can be controlled by teams of between three (3) and eight (8) officials. Where there are only three (3) game officials, two (2) shall be the referees who shall take on the additional duties of the goal line judges and the scrutineer and one timekeeper taking over the duties of the timekeepers and scorekeeper.

  6. REFEREES

    The referees shall be in absolute control of the game. Their authority over the players shall be effective during the whole time that they and the players are within the competition area.

    All decisions of the referees on questions of fact shall be final and their interpretation of the rules shall be obeyed throughout the game. No protest or appeal can be made in relation to an interpretive decision of a referee. The referees shall not make any presumption as to the facts of any situation during the game but shall interpret what they observe to the best of their ability.

    The referees shall whistle to start and restart the game and to declare goals, goal line throws, corner throws, infringements of the rules and time-outs. A referee may alter their decision provided they do so before the ball is put back into play. The referee must ensure that before the game is restarted that in their sole discretion neither team is disadvantaged.

    The referees shall have the power to order any player or team official from the playing area in accordance with the appropriate rule and to abandon the game should a player refuse to leave the playing area when so ordered.

    The referees shall have the power to order the removal from the competition area any player, team-official or other person whose behaviour prevents the referees from carrying out their duties in a proper and impartial manner.

    The referees shall have the power to abandon the game at any time if, in their opinion, the behaviour of the players, team-officials or other circumstances prevent it from being brought to a proper conclusion. If the game has to be abandoned the referees shall report their actions to the Chief Official.

  7. GOAL LINE JUDGES

    The goal line judges shall be situated on the opposite side to the table-officials, one on each goal line.

    The duties of the goal line judges shall be to signal by:

    Raising a green flag when the players are correctly positioned on their respective goal lines at the start of a period;

    Raising a red flag to indicate the ball is out of play by crossing the goal line. (Goal line-throw, corner-throw, goal);

    Waving a red flag for an improper start or restart;

    Waving a red flag for an improper re-entry of an excluded player or improper entry of a substitute.

    Each goal line judge shall be provided by the Organising Committee with a supply of balls and when the original ball has gone outside the field of play, they shall immediately throw a new ball to the goalkeeper (for a goal throw), to the nearest player of the attacking team (for a corner throw), or as otherwise directed by the referee.

  8. SCRUTINEER

    The scrutineer will be responsible for checking the equipment of all players before and during their game. They may also check equipment at any other time during a competition.

  9. TIMEKEEPERS

    The timekeepers shall be situated at the official's table.

    The duties of the timekeepers shall be to:

    Record the exact periods of playing time, timeouts and the intervals between the periods;

    Control the periods of time-outs and to signal the period by raising a red flag, except that a referee shall signal the end of a time-out;

    Record the send-off times of players ordered from the playing area in accordance with the rules, together with the re-entry times of such players or their substitutes;

    Control the periods of exclusion of players and to signal the end of the period of exclusion by a visual electronic device or by raising and waving a green flag;

    A timekeeper shall signal by any means provided it is distinctive, acoustically efficient and readily understood, the end of each period independently of the referees and their signal shall take immediate effect except in the case of the simultaneous award by a referee of a goal penalty shot, in which event the goal penalty shot shall be taken in accordance with the rules;

    The first timekeepers shall perform the duties stated in 9.2.1 and 9.2.2 and the second timekeeper shall perform 9.2.3 and 9.2.4.

  10. SCOREKEEPER

    The scorekeeper shall be situated at the official table.

    The duties of the scorekeeper shall be to:

    Record the awarded goals and maintain the scoreboard during the game;

    Maintain the record of the game, including the players, the score, time-outs, green, yellow and red cards awarded against each player.

  11. NUMBER OF PLAYERS

    Each team may consist of a maximum of eight (8) players for any one game. No more than five (5) players are permitted on the playing area at any one time. Any other players at that moment are to be considered as substitutes. A team must begin each game with five (5) players, ready to start on their own goal line. If a team is reduced to two (2) players at any time the referee shall end the game and refer the matter to the competition committee who shall decide the appropriate action to be taken.

    The list of players names and numbers for a game must be handed to the appropriate official before the time indicated by the Competition Committee

  12. KAYAKS

    One kayak, approved by the scrutineer, per player.

    For full specifications on kayaks and padding - see appendix Scrutineering.

  13. PADDLES

    One double-bladed paddle, approved by the scrutineer, per player.

    For full specifications on paddles - see appendix Scrutineering.

  14. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT

    Each player must wear one helmet with facemask, approved by the scrutineer.

    For full specifications on helmet and facemasks - see appendix Scrutineering.

    Body protection, approved by the scrutineer, must be worn.

    For full specifications on body protection - see appendix Scrutineering.

    A shirt with sleeves, which at least covers the mid upper arm, must be worn. The players shall not have grease, oil or any similar substance on their arms and neck.

    Beside the equipment and clothing listed above, personal clothing and effects, and a spray deck for the player is permitted. Extra protective equipment on the hands, forearm and elbows is permitted provided it is firm fitting, securely attached and with no sharp edges such that they do not endanger any other player. No other equipment is permitted. A player must not wear any items (such as jewellery) that can endanger either the wearer or any other player Players may not apply any greasy substances to their equipment.

  15. EXCHANGING EQUIPMENT

    Each player is permitted to leave the playing area and exchange any piece of equipment, at any time during the game, provided the equipment has been approved by the scrutineer. The player concerned must collect equipment being exchanged from their substitutes area.

  16. SCRUTINEERING

    Players' equipment is subject to scrutineering before, during or after a game.

    A referee must dismiss from the playing area, once aware of the infringement, any player whose equipment is in breach of the rules, either at the first break in play or direct if the equipment has become dangerous for the players.

  17. PLAYING TIME

    Playing time shall be two (2) periods each of ten (10) minutes, unless extra periods need to be played or a tiebreaker shoot-out has to take place. The minimum playing time will be seven (7) minutes each way.

    The half time interval shall normally be three (3) minutes. The minimum half time interval will be one (1) minute.

    The teams shall change ends after each period of play.

    The referee may call time-out during the playing time. The timekeeper will stop the clock when the referee signals for time-out and restart the clock when the referee restarts the game with a whistle.

  18. TIME-OUT

    The referee shall use a triple whistle to stop the game for time-out.

    Time-out must be given if a capsized player or their equipment is interfering with play.

    Time-out should be used immediately when game regulations are dangerously breached or if field equipment needs correction or adjustment. (for example: endangering another player due to a broken paddle).

    Time-out should be used if any injury has occurred, or a player is illegally on the field, provided this does not disadvantage the other team.

    Time-out must be used after a goal is scored, or a goal-penalty-shot is awarded or for any other incidences at the discretion of the referee.

    If the referee has stopped the game, not during a break in play and where neither team was at fault (e.g. referee error, faulty goals, injury) the play will be restarted with a free throw to the team that last had possession. Where time-out was given for a capsized player the opposition is given a free throw to restart.

    If the referee cannot determine who had possession at the time of the whistle, the referee will restart the game with a referee' s ball. Signal 8 applies.

  19. CHOICE OF END

    The first named team on the game sheet will start on the goal line at the left-hand side of the official table unless one of the captains or the Chief Official request a toss of a coin to determine the choice of ends.

  20. COMMENCEMENT OF PLAY

    At the beginning of each game, five (5) players will line up ready to start, stationary and with some part of their kayaks on their own goal line.

    The referee will blow the whistle to start play and then release or throw the ball into the centre of the playing area.

    If the ball is released or thrown giving one team definite advantage, the referee shall call for the ball and shall restart for the period of play.

    Physical assistance from other players is not allowed on the player attempting for the ball. Infringement incurs a free throw. Signals 1 and 14 apply.

    Only one player from each team may make an attempt to gain possession of the ball. Any other player that accompanies the player attempting for the ball must not be within a radius of three (3) metres from the body of the player attempting for the ball. Infringement incurs a free throw. Signals 1 and 14 apply.

  21. BALL OUT OF PLAY

    Sideline and overhead obstacle: When any part of the ball touches the physical sideline or the vertical plane of the physical sideline, or touches any overhead obstacle, the team that was not the last to touch it with their paddle, kayak or person is awarded a sideline-throw. Signals 5 and 14 apply.

    If the physical sideline is moved out of position as a consequence of normal play, the boundary moves with it.

    Sideline-throw. The player taking the throw must position their kayak at the point of exit of the ball or the point on the sideline nearest to the point of contact of an overhead-obstacle.

    Goal-line: Either a goal-line or corner throw will be awarded when any part of the ball touches the vertical plane of the front of the goal frame between the corner markers, except where a ball rebounds off the goal frame (not the goal supports) into the playing area or where a goal is scored.

    Goal line throw: When the ball goes out over the teams own goal line and has been last touched by the other team then a goal line throw will be awarded. Signals 6 and 14 apply. The player taking the throw must be positioned with their kayak on the goal line.

    Corner-throw: When the ball goes out over the teams own goal line and was last touched by their own team then a corner throw will be awarded. Signals 5 and 14 apply. The player taking the throw must be positioned with their kayak in the corner of the playing area.

  22. SCORING A GOAL

    A team scores a goal when the whole of the ball passes through the plane of the front of the goal frame of their opponent's goal. If a goal is not rigidly fixed, and moves the ball must go through the goal frame. The referee will indicate the number of the player scoring the goal to the scorekeeper. Signal 3 and time-out applies.

    If the ball is prevented from entering a goal by either a defender's or substitutes paddle that enters the goal from behind, then a goal is awarded.

  23. RESTART AFTER GOAL

    After a goal has been scored the team who have conceded the goal will take the restart throw. The player taking the throw must be positioned with their kayak in the centre of the playing area. The referee will blow the whistle to restart play. There is no requirement for the player to hold the ball above their head.

    All players of both teams must start with their bodies in their own half.

  24. CAPSIZED PLAYER

    If a player capsizes and leaves their kayak, the player may not take any further part in the play and must leave the playing area immediately, with all of their equipment. If a player who has capsized wishes to rejoin the game the player must do so according to the rules of entry to the field of play. No person may enter the playing area to assist a player with their equipment, and no-one may obstruct the referee while assisting a player. A team may be penalised during a game for any illegal outside assistance, or for any interference with the opposition that constitutes outside assistance. The referee to determine the severity of the sanction.

  25. ENTRY TO THE PLAYING AREA, RE-ENTRY AND SUBSTITUTION

    No more than the legally allowed number of players from a team may be on the playing area at any one time.

    Substitutes must wait in their own substitutes area.

    Exit and entry of players for substitution may be anywhere along the teams own goal line. The whole of the player's kayak must leave the playing area before the substitute may enter the playing area. Substitution is not allowed if any equipment for example a paddle or helmet remains on the playing area. Substitution is allowed at any time.

    A player leaving the playing area solely as part of the action of the game is not subject to the conditions for re-entry.

    A capsized player who has not left the playing area at their goal line may be substituted not earlier than the next break in play. All of the capsized players equipment (for example kayak and paddle) must be removed from the playing area before a substitution is allowed.

  26. ILLEGAL SUBSTITUTION AND ENTRY TO THE PLAYING AREA

    Where more than the legally allowed number of players from a team are in the playing area at any one time the player(s) coming illegally into the playing area should be given a yellow card(s), and the team is required to play with one player less than they had before the player(s) came illigally into for the duration of the yellow card. If it is not clear which player(s) should exit the playing area then the teams captain must nominate a player(s). Infringement incurs a sanction. Signal 7 and 14 apply.

    In the event of a substitute placing their paddle in the playing area to prevent a goal from being scored, a goal penalty shot shall be awarded. The offending player should be penalised with a red card and the team must play with one less player on the playing area then they had prior to the offence occurring for the remaining time of the game. Infringement incurs a sanction. Signals 15, 16 and 7 apply.

  27. ILLEGAL USE OF THE PADDLE

    Signals 12 and 15 apply. The following are defined as illegal use of the paddle.

  28. Contacting an opponent's person.

    Playing, or attempting to play, the ball with a paddle when the ball is within arms reach of an opponent, and that opponent is attempting to play the ball with their hand.

    Playing or attempting to play the ball with a paddle across the bow of an opponent's kayak, within arms reach of the opponent in a normal paddling position.

    Placing a paddle within arms reach of an opponent who has the ball in their hand. A goalkeeper is excluded from this rule and is allowed to directly defend against a shot at goal as long as the paddle is not moved towards the opponent at the time of the shot and is not used in a deliberately dangerous manner.

    When a player, with their paddle, attempts to restrict an opponent using their paddle.

    Playing an opponents paddle instead of the ball.

    Throwing a paddle.

    Any other use of a paddle that endangers a player.

  29. ILLEGAL POSSESION

    Signals 11 and 15 apply. A player is in possession of the ball when they have the ball in their hand or are in a position to reach the ball with their hand, the ball being on the water and not in the air. A player balancing the ball on their paddle will also be considered to be in possession.

    A player must dispose of the ball within five (5) seconds of gaining possession, either by passing it to another player or by performing one throw causing the ball to travel by at least one metre measured horizontally from the point of release.

    If a player shares possession with another player or the ball moves out of arms reach whilst being tackled, the five (5) seconds shall begin again once a player has regained possession.

    A player who capsizes to the point of the whole of their body and head going under water is considered to have lost possession if they do not have the ball in their hand(s).

    A player may not manoevre their kayak with their hands or paddle whilst the ball is resting on their spray deck.

  30. ILLEGAL HAND TACKLE

    Signals 10 and 15 apply. A Hand-Tackle is a player, with one open hand, pushing an opponent's back, upper arm or side. The following hand-tackles are illegal.

    Any hand-tackle where the tackled player does not have possession of the ball.

    Any body contact other than an open hand to the back, upper arm or side.

    Any hand-tackle, which endangers the tackled player.

    A player may not fend off a tackle with the hand or forearm or with the movement of the elbow towards the hand-tackler.

  31. ILLEGAL KAYAK TACKLE

    Signals 10 and 15 apply. A kayak-tackle is a player manoeuvring their kayak against an opponent's kayak in an attempt to gain possession of the ball. The following kayak-tackles are illegal.

    Any kayak-tackle that results in the tacklers kayak contacting the body of a player and/or endangering a player. The player's arm shall not be considered to be part of the body when any part of it is elevated away from the body.

    Any kayak-tackle where the kayak comes in contact with the opponent's spray deck following a legal tackle will not be penalised unless the player continues to tackle into the spray deck.

    When the ball is no longer in control of either player, they may move off each others kayak by using their hands to perform a controlled action on the opponents kayak.

    A player in possession of the ball who fails to control the bow of their kayak and also fails to avoid contact with the body of an opponent.

    Any hard tackle to the side of the kayak if it is at angles between eighty (80) and hundred (100) degrees and by momentary contact.

    Tackling an opponent who is not within three (3) metres of the ball.

    Tackling an opponent when the tackler is not competing for the ball.

  32. ILLEGAL JOSTLE

    Signals 10 and 15 apply. A jostle is a player manoeuvring their kayak against an opponent's kayak between the six (6)-metre lines and the goal line, to gain a position where neither player is attempting for the ball. The following jostling is illegal.

    When a player is stationary or attempting to maintain a position and their body is moved by more than half a metre by sustained contact from an opponent's kayak.

    When the contact to the opponent's kayak would be defined as a kayak-tackle.

    A player with the whole kayak behind the goal line may not be jostled, as they are not in the six (6) -metre area.

  33. ILLEGAL SCREEN

    Signals 9 and 15 apply. An illigal screen is when a player actively impedes the progress of an opposing player, exept where:

    Both players are competing for the ball; or

    The opposing player is in possession of the ball; or

    The opposing player is within three (3) metres of the ball and is the nearest player to the ball, where the ball is on the water and not in the air; or

    Both players are jostling within the six (6) metre area.

    A player is considered to be actively impeding the progress of an opponent when their kayak is moving and/or they are attempting active paddle strokes.

  34. ILLEGAL HOLDING

    Signals 9 and 15 apply.

    A player restricting the movement of an opposing player or gaining support or propulsion by placing their hand, arm, body or paddle on the kayak, or holding the opposing player or equipment.

    A player using for propulsion or support, or moving out of place, any playing area equipment e.g. boundary markers, goal supports, or any surrounding object.

  35. UNSPORTING BEHAVIOUR

    Signal 17 with a green card applies. The following is defined as unsporting behaviour:

    Any infringement committed by a player during a break in play.

    Hindering another player's attempt at righting themselves after capsizing. A player who is upside down must be allowed to get their head and both shoulders above the water before an opponent is allowed to attempt another tackle.

    Interference with the equipment of an opponent. Such as holding or moving another player's paddle out of their reach, or deliberately preventing the player from regaining possession of the paddle.

    Use of deliberate delaying tactics. Such as throwing the ball away, or deliberately obstructing the opposition, to delay a quick restart after an infringement.

    Players showing dissent.

    Retaliation.

    Foul or abusive language.

    Other unsporting behaviour to a player, referee or other official or behaviour considered detrimental to the game, at the discretion of the referee.

  36. DEFENCE OF GOAL

    The one defending player most directly under the goal, in order to defend the goal with the paddle is considered to be the goalkeeper at that time. The goalkeeper's body must be facing into the playing area and attempting to maintain a position within one metre of the centre of the goal line. If two or more players are directly under the goal, the player most directly under the goal is considered the goalkeeper at that time.

    If the goalkeeper is not in possession of the ball and is moved or unbalanced by contact from an opposing player, then that player has committed an illegal tackle. Infringement incurs a sanction. Signals 10 and 15 apply.

    If an attacker moves the goalkeeper by pushing a defender into the goalkeeper, where none of the defenders have possession of the ball, the attacker shall be penalised. If the defender has an opportunity to avoid contact with the goalkeeper after being pushed, but does not, the attacker will not be penalised.

    If a defender pushes the attacker onto the goalkeeper, then the attacker should not be penalised. If the attacker has an opportunity to avoid contact with the goalkeeper after being pushed, but does not, the attacker will be penalised.

    If an attacker, in possession of the ball, whose original direction or speed would not have led to contact with the goalkeeper is pushed onto the goalkeeper by a defender, the attacker will not be penalised.

    A goalkeeper who is not in possession of the ball, but is attempting for the ball on the water, can be tackled like any other player. If the goalkeeper does not gain possession they will not regain goalkeeper status until the attacker has shot or passed the ball. After the attacker loses possession of the ball, the attacker must not actively impede the goalkeeper's attempt to regain or maintain their position.

    Within the six (6) metre area, an attacker must not actively prevent a defender from taking the position as goalkeeper. A defender will be allowed to push an attacker with the kayak, in order to take the position of goalkeeper without penalty, unless dangerous play is used.

    As soon as a team has control of the ball they can no longer be considered to be defending and thus cannot have a player defined as a goalkeeper.

  37. REFEREE'S BALL

    A referee's ball will be declared when two or more players of opposing teams have one or more hands firmly on the ball, so that the players share possession of the ball for five (5) seconds.

    If initial contact is made directly with the ball illegal holding will only apply if either player uses the opposition for support.

    If the referee needs to stop the game, not during a break in play and where neither team is at fault (e.g. referee error, faulty goals, injury) and the referee cannot determine who had possession at the time of the whistle, the referee will restart the game with a referee' s ball.

    A referees ball will be taken at the nearest point on the sideline to the incident. Where a referee's ball is awarded for an incident that occurs between the six (6) metre line and the goal line, the referee's ball will be held at the nearest six (6) metre line. Signal 8 and Time-out applies.

    Two opposing players will line up at right angles to the sideline, on the side nearest their own goal line, near to the sideline where the situation occurred, one metre apart facing the referee. They will place their paddles on the water, but not between their kayaks and their hands on the deck of the kayak or on their paddle.

    All other players must be at least three (3) metres away from the point between the two players participating in the referees ball.

    The referee will throw the ball on the water between the players and blow the whistle to restart play. Both players must make an attempt for the ball with their hands as soon as it touches the water. The players must not play the ball before it hits the water. Infringement incurs a sanction. Signals 11 and 15 apply.

  38. ADVANTAGE

    The referees can allow play to continue when the team in possession is benefited by play continuing as a result of an infringement by an opponent, if neither referee has blown the whistle. The referee should recognise the illegal-play by signalling play-on. Signals 13 and 14 apply.

    The referee can penalise any player who causes an infringement for which advantage is played at the next break in play with a yellow or red card.

    Advantage is to be indicated if there is no infringement but players think there is an infringement and have stopped play. (For example a whistle from another playing area, crowds etc.)

  39. SANCTIONS

    The referee can impose any combination of the following sanctions for illegal-play depending on the severity and/or frequency of offences being penalised. The referee may send a player off the playing area for varying periods depending on the severity and/or frequency of offence being penalised. Timing of send-offs is suspended for periods of time out or intervals of play.

    Goal-penalty-shot. Signal 16 and time out applies.

    A goal-penalty-shot will be awarded for any deliberate and/or dangerous offence in the six (6) metre area where a player is fouled in the act of shooting, or passing or positioning for a near certain goal. The act of shooting begins when a player has contact with the ball, with their hand or paddle, and is clearly attempting or preparing for a shot.

    A goal-penalty-shot can be awarded for an offence where a player, outside the six (6) metre area, is fouled in the act of shooting or passing or positioning for a near certain goal, whilst the goal is not otherwise defended if no attempt is made to avoid illegal play (deliberate) and/or an offence where paddle contact with the ball in the opponents hand or any illegal play that endangers the opposition occurs (dangerous).

    A Goal Penalty Shot will be awarded for a deliberate and/or dangerous infringement on a player within the six (6) metre area who is attempting tot take a free-shot.

    Free shot. Signal 15 applies.

    A Free shot may be a direct shot at goal. General play resumes when the ball has travelled one metre horizontally or changed possession to another player of the team. A free shot will be awarded for offences where a goal-penalty-shot, free throw, corner throw, goal-line throw, sideline-throw or a centre re-start has not been awarded.

    Free throw. Signal 14 applies.

    A Free throw may not be direct at goal. General play resumes when the ball has travelled one metre horizontally or changed possession to another player of the team. A free throw will be awarded when a goal-penalty-shot or free shot has not been awarded.

    Player sent off for the rest of the game.

    Signal 17 with a red card applies.

    A red card must be awarded to a player receiving a second yellow card for any reason.

    A red card should be awarded when a yellow card is disputed or has not had the desired effect of causing the player to control their play or attitude.

    A red card should be awarded if a personal attack on a player occurs.

    A red card should be awarded for repeated and continuous foul or abusive language.

    If a player is sent off for the rest of the game, the player cannot be replaced by a substitute.

    Player sent off for two (2) minutes.

    Signal 17 with a yellow card applies.

    A yellow card must be awarded to a player receiving a third green card for any reason.

    A yellow card should be awarded for a deliberate and/or dangerous foul that prevents the scoring of a near certain goal where the referee feels that the awarding of only a free shot will not have the desired effect.

    A yellow card should be awarded for dangerous illegal play, that is deliberate, repeated, or where no attempt is made to avoid dangerous play.

    A yellow card should be awarded for repeated and continuous disputing of referee's decisions.

    A yellow card should be awarded for foul or abusive language.

    Players sent off must obey the rules of entry to the playing area for re-entry at the completion of the send-off period.

    Warning.

    Signal 17 with a green card applies.

    A green card should be awarded for deliberate unsporting behaviour of major influence to the state of the game.

    A green card should be awarded for unnecessary verbal communication to the referee, dangerous play and/or unsporting behaviour.

    Team Warning.

    Signal 17 with a green card applies. A team warning occurs when a referee awards a green card to all players on a team.

    A team warning will be awarded for repeated infringements of a particular offence by more than one player of the same team.

    After a team warning has been given, a yellow card will be awarded to any player of that team for any subsequent infringement for the same offence.

  40. TAKING THROWS

    The player taking any goal line-throw, corner-throw, sideline-throw, free-throw or free-shot must hold the ball above their head, at arms length with their kayak stationary, before taking the throw. The players initial throw must travel one (1) metre measured horizontally from the point of release or changed possession to another player of the same team. Infringement incurs a sanction with the opposing team being awarded possession of the ball. Signal 11 and 14 applies.

    Free-throws, goal line-throws, corner-throws, restart throws and sideline-throws may not be direct at goal.

    The ball is not in play until the initial throw has travelled at least one metre measured horizontally from the point of release or changed possession to another player of the same team. A player must be allowed to take up their position to take the throw. No opponent may contact the player or their equipment until the throw is taken. The opposition must not attempt to prevent the ball from travelling one metre measured horizontally. Infringement incurs a sanction. Signals 11 and 14 or signals 11 and 15 apply. A free throw will be retaken as a free throw, and a free shot will be retaken as a free shot.

    The player must throw the ball within five seconds of being in possession and in a position to take the throw. The five seconds for the restart applies from when any member of the team is in a position to pick up the ball and take the throw. Any dropping or fumbling of the ball will not be considered, provided the initial throw is taken within the five seconds. Infringement incurs a sanction with the opposing team awarded possession of the ball. Signals 11 and 14 or signals 11 and 15 apply. A free throw will be retaken as a free throw, and a free shot will be retaken as a free shot.

    Where an infringement occurs that requires the awarding of a free-shot or free-throw. The shot or throw should be taken at a point that, in the referees sole discretion, best advantages the team. The referee will indicate that the shot or throw be taken either where the infringement occurred or, where the ball was at the time of the infringement, or where the ball landed if it was in flight at the time of the infringement. However, a defence of goal infringement must be taken where the infringement occurred.

    Where a free-shot is awarded within one (1) metre of the goal the free shot will be taken at the nearest point one (1) metre from the goal line.

  41. TAKING A GOAL PENALTY-SHOT

    The player taking the goal penalty-shot will be stationary with their body on the six (6) metre line.

    All other players must be in the other half of the playing area until play restarts.

    The shot will be taken when referee blows the whistle. The five (5) second rule applies.

    Play will restart on the whistle.

    The player taking the shot may not play the ball again until it has touched another player or another player's equipment or the goal frame.

  42. COMPLETION OF PLAY

    The timekeeper will indicate the end of the period of playing time by the use of a loud signal. The ball is dead at the start of the signal. The referee shall use signal 2 to confirm the timekeeper's signal.

    If a goal penalty-shot has been awarded prior to the signal for completion of play, the goal penalty-shot must be taken before play is to be considered completed. In this situation, the ball shall after it has been thrown immediately be dead if it hits the water or the goal frame and comes back into the playing area.

  43. TIEBREAKER SHOOT-OUT

    The captain of the team can choose which players, and their order, will participate in the tiebreaker shoot-out. Normally five (5) players will be chosen, (which may or may not include the goalkeeper) however, at the end of playing time, any player(s) who are not part of the game because of a red card send-off, will not take part in the tiebreaker shoot-out and their team will forfeit those shot(s). At the end of playing time, any player(s) who are not part of the game because of a yellow card send-off, will not take part in the tiebreaker shoot-out but their team will not forfeit those shot(s).

    The participating players from each team will take tiebreaker shots alternating between teams after each shot. The referee will toss a coin and offer the choice of which team is to shoot first to the team captain that wins the toss. Both teams shoot at the same goal. Unless the Competition Committee has decided which goal should be used, the referee will decide which goal is to be used.

    The goalkeeper not involved in defending the goal will position themselves beside the side line nearest the second referee in between shots unless they are taking a shot personally.

    If, after each team has had five (5) tiebreaker shots, one team has scored a greater number of goals, then that team will be the winning team.

    If, after each team has had five (5) tiebreaker shots, the score is still equal then the teams will take alternate tiebreaker shots, in the same order as the previous round, until, with an equal number of tiebreaker shots, one team has scored more goals.

  44. TAKING A TIEBREAKER SHOT

    The player taking the tiebreaker shot will be stationary with their body four metres and fifty centimetres from the goal line.

    One player from the defending team may position themselves, in order to defend the goal with the paddle ("the Goalkeeper"). The goalkeeper's body must be facing into the playing area and attempting to maintain a position within one metre of the centre of the goal line. The goalkeeper must not leave this position during the period of the tiebreaker shot.

    All other players must wait in the other half of the playing area until the completion of the tiebreaker shot.

    The shot will be taken when the referee blows the whistle. The five (5) second rule applies.

    The player must take a direct shot at goal.

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